Updated: Jul 29
Shell Game Scam. Walter Lippman (1889-1974), an influential American writer, conducted a study leading to the conclusion of a failed U.S. media. An early basis for his conclusion, was the published essay he co-wrote with Charles Merz titled "New Republic". In the essay, their study of the press coverage of the Russian Revolution (1917-23) demonstrated the U.S. press was one-sided and did not, like others have argued to have occurred between 1830-1900, present the fuller U.S. public discourse. In those previous years, multiple viewpoints were written in newspapers reflecting the public square's popular, or even unpopular, diverse opinions. Lippman's understanding, writing various books expanding on the topic, was put into practice by the press (recently understood as the Mainstream Media, or MSM). Lippman further concluded, based on his general insight of a failed media, was what?
Answer: the public was now entering an age in which they were insufficiently informed. Lippman's solutions and application crystalized and hardened the MSM into the creature we find today. The public not as fully informed by the media as the public should be results in what we may call today disinformation about the discourse and practices actually taking place in the larger public square. Therefore, Lippman further concluded, the role of the media should change. Since the media no longer can be relied upon to reflect public debate, argument, and conversation in the public square pertaining to politics, economy, military accounts oversees (remember his study began with a noticeable lack of accuracy concerning the Russian Revolution), or whatever else, then... so far so good in my opinion, but wait for it...
...the media should mediate to the public what elite experts resolve to be the best information and practices for society. The public was taken out of the "public" discourse increasingly from then on based on Lippman's teachings. His findings for the most part seemed spot-on, but his solution to hand over public discourse to elites plagues us today.
Corruption was inevitable based on Lippman's model. For when there is a lack of empathy, in other words, a lack of consideration concerning others by a smaller, powerful elite population their practice turned confidence game delimits the population at large into a Shell Game Scam:
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